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Jujutsu and Judo History
Classical Japanese Jujutsu - From Arima Judo Kyohon (1904).The author was the third person to join the Kodokan, and was a 4th degree black belt when he wrote Arima Judo Kyohon.
Self-defense being natural to everybody, there is perhaps no country where the art of fighting unarmed,whatever its form,is unknown, but perhaps in no country has the art made such remarkable progress as in Japan.In the feudal days of this country there existed various schools of such art, being known by the different names of jujitsu, taijitsu,yawara,wajitsu,toride,kogusoku,kempo,hakuda,kumiuchi, shukaku,judo,etc.

They are so intermingled with one another that any correct discrimination between them is almost impossible;for instance, one being nominally different from but virtually analogous to another, while the other varies from its namesake as regards its essential points. We may,however, state that, of these,toride and kogusoku are intended for the arrest of persons,while jujitsu and judo make it a specialty either to floor or kill one's opponent and kempo and hakuda to kick and strike.Generally speaking, they may all be described as the art either of fighting with an armed or unarmed enemy,oneself utterly unarmed,or of engaging by means of a small weapon an enemy armed with a large one.

The various schools mentioned above have had their own foremost champions who,endowed with high intellectual powers,have assiduously devolved their whole life to the study of their beloved art.And they were duly rewarded.Not only have they succeeded,with wonderful knack or by means of real strength,in mastering the art of gaining a victory over an enemy,but they have contributed to the unequaled development of the art by discovering many fundamental rules bearing on manifold maneuvers against one's antagonist,delicate movements arising from harmonious muscular action,display of pluck,training of intellectual faculties,etc.

Opinions differ as to the origin of the art. One traces it to Chin Gempin,a naturalized Chinese,of whom mention is made in the following paragraph.Another attributes it to Shirobei Akiyama,a physician at Nagasaki,who is stated to have learned three tricks of hakuda in China.A thirdon the other hand, claims the art to be the production of pure Japanese ingenuity.

To state more in detail,Chin Gempin was naturalized as a Japanese subject in 1659 and died in 1671.While sojourning at the Kokushoji temple at Azabu,Tokyo (then Yedo),he, it is stated,taught three tricks of jujitsu to three ronin (samurai discharged from their lord's service). These ronin were Shichiroyemon Fukuno,Yojiyemon Miura and Jirozayemon Isogai, and after much study,they each founded their own schools of jujitsu.It is beyond doubt that what was learned by them consisted of three kinds of atewaza (that is to say, striking the vital and vulnerable parts of the body) of the Chinese kempo (pugilism).We cannot, therefore,arrive at the hasty conclusion that Chin is the founder of jujitsu in this country,though it must be stated to his credit that his teaching gave an undoubted impulse to the development of jujitsu.

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